Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Close-Range Photogrammetry: The 3D Optical Bridge Evaluation System (3DOBS)


According to the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), more than 26% of the nation’s bridges in 2009 were classified as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. Two years later, structurally deficient or functionally obsolete bridges still made up close to 24% of the nation's total bridge infrastructure. A report by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) indicates that, given more time and funding to complete bridge inspections, the use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods would increase among state and county transportation agencies (Highway Bridge Inspection: State-of-the-Practice Survey, 2001). NDE promises a way to enhance the allocation of funding by improving the information these decisions are based on and by improving the assessment of existing bridge conditions and through increased safety of inspection crews, reducing traffic disruption, and increasing the frequency, objectivity, and accuracy of bridge condition assessment.
As part of research funded by USDOT-RITA, the 3D Optical Bridge Evaluation System (3DOBS) was developed to quickly assess the condition of bridges while minimizing traffic disruptions and limiting inspection crews' exposure to traffic. The system is composed of a Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera mounted on a truck, close range photogrammetry software (Agisoft PhotoScan Pro) and an automated spall detection algorithm. For close range photogrammetry to be achieved, the photos need to be collected with at least 60% overlap. Early testing of the photogrammetry software showed that collecting imagery with greater overlap produced better results.
Prior to the collection of photos, the bridges had to be marked with reference points for Agisoft to set up a coordinate system and to create a DEM. These reference points were marked duct tape that was placed on the bridge deck in a grid pattern. The tape was placed at four foot intervals in the transverse direction and at ten foot intervals in the longitudinal direction. Carrier phase GPS points were collected with a Trimble GPS (with an accuracy of <1m) at each of the four corners of the bridge deck and at various other points on the deck to be able to correctly spatially reference our data.
For the collection of the photos, a standard consumer grade Nikon D5000 DSLR with a resolution of 12.3 megapixels (MP) and a 27 mm focal length lens were used. In order to capture a full lane in one pass the camera needed to be mounted 9 ft above the bridge deck. In order to achieve this height, a wooden vehicle mount was constructed to fit into the bed of a standard pickup truck. During field collections a control board was programmed to trigger the camera shutter at a rate of one image per second. With the camera mounted, the truck was driven across the bridge deck at a speed of about 2 mph. This speed ensured that images were captured with the required 60% overlap between the photos.
After the photos were collected they were processed in Agisoft PhotoScan Pro. This process was mostly automated as the software aligned the photos and generated a 3D model without any user input. After the model was generated it was necessary to manually add "KeyPoints" to mark the location of each one of the duct tape markers with the latitude and longitude coordinates. This allowed PhotoScan to set up a coordinate system and to accurately reference the model and create a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEMs that were generated have a resolution of 5 mm in the x, y directions and a z resolution of 2 mm.
The spall detection algorithm was written in Python programming language and uses ArcPy to interface with ArcGIS and utilize some of ESRI’s available geospatial tools. The tool used to detect spalls is called Focal Statistics analyzes each cell in the raster and calculates statistics based on a specified neighborhood of cells around it. Additional functionality was added so that the user can remove bridge joints by creating a shapefile that defines the bridge joints. Spalls can also be identified based upon their area. This feature allows for the detected spalls to correspond to minimum size definitions and allow for the removal of small artifacts in the DEM. The data processing is automated, and only requires the user to set the working directory, file names for the DEM and bridge joint shapefile, focal statistics sensitivity and the minimum spall size.
Enhancements are currently being made to this system through a project sponsored by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). These enhancements will include improving the camera so that the system would be able to operate at near highway speeds (40 mph) and the construction of a more sturdy vehicle mount. The spall detection algorithm will also be improved. The current version of the algorithm simply looks for a change in the elevation and therefore it also detects the edges of patches on the bridge and reports them as spalls. This will be changed so that the algorithm will only detect negative changes or those that represent spalls on the bridge deck.

This work is supported as part of a larger program (Bridge Condition Assessment Using Remote Sensors) sponsored by the Commercial Remote Sensing and Spatial Information program of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT), Cooperative Agreement # DTOS59-10-H-00001, with additional support provided by the Michigan Department of Transportation, the Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, the Michigan Tech Research Institute, and the Center for Automotive Research. The views, opinions, findings, and conclusions reflected in this paper are the responsibility of the authors only and do not represent the official policy or position of the USDOT/RITA, or any state or other entity. Further information regarding remote sensing technologies and the decision support system for bridge condition assessment and about this project can be found at <http://www.mtri.org/bridgecondition>.





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  66. To espn.com/activate , you must log into the espn account, enter the email address when you are asked to log in to your TV. On espn you can enjoy new movies and TV shows and for more information, please espn.com/activate . espn is a very good tv channel. Here , espn.com/activate . If you're watching espn on your TV, you just have to open the application and get your unique espn activation code.

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  67. To activate avg antivirus , you need to redeem your avg activation code which you will find in your registered mail ID. Through www.avg.com/retail you can download, install avg antivirus . create a avg account to manage www.avg.com/retail and avg retail installation subscription.

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  68. Roku provides the simplest way to stream entertainment on your TV. roku.com/link is the official site to link, activate, set-up and manage your Roku player or Roku TV. A Roku account gives you access to an amazing selection of movies, TV shows, music and you can watch TV shows and movies online from the roku.com/link channel store. For more information, visit the website roku.com/link and enjoy.

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  69. You can watch movies and TV shows on the Roku channel such as hit hits movies, popular shows, live news, sports and you can activate it by visiting roku.com/link . But to do this you must follow certain conditions of Roku. To get more information about this you can visit our website roku.com/link . Our Roku team is available to help you at all times. You can contact the Roku team at any time at roku.com/link . And can benefit.

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  70. Once the device is found, you can add roku paid channel or roku channel from roku.com/link with activation code store. Connected to your TV screen roku.com/link . And will start displaying some instructions to activate roku. You will then receive an activation code for Roku. After that you have to connect Link roku to roku.com/link . You can choose from your favorite channel roku.com/link.

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  71. Norton Antivirus is a very good antivirus for computers, laptops etc. It protects your computer, laptops etc. from all kinds of viruses. You can download it by going to the norton.com/setup website. You can also know how to activate it on the website [url=https://nnorton-setup.sitelio.me/]norton.com/setup[/url] mentioned by us. If you still face any kind of problem, then you should contact our team at norton.com/setup . Our team will help you in every way.

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  72. Log in to the Norton website norton.com/setup to get the Norton Product Activation Key. You can select Norton service at norton.com/setup for which you need a product key. You can find it under the My Subscriptions tab. Safely copy and note the given product activation key. You can get information by visiting our website norton.com/setup . Norton Antivirus has many features and benefits for you.

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  73. Norton Internet Security is a widely used security. If you want to get Norton Internet Security then you can go to norton.com/setup . Norton Antivirus is the easiest and most secure antivirus for your computer and mobile. To maintain it you go to this norton.com/setup link and forget about all other viruses, spyware, root-kits, hackers. Go to norton.com/setup to learn more about it.

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  74. Norton Antivirus provides protection from viruses, malware, online threats without harming device performance. It also blocks harmful websites. You can get norton.com/setup product from retail store and also download and install Norton Antivirus with product key from norton.com/setup . And to do this, you can visit the website given by us at norton.com/setup or link. Our entire team is available to help you.

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  75. To setup and download the Hp priter driver software, visit our website 123.hp.com/setup . The 123 hp setup HP printer makes printing hassle-free and easy. Install the hp printer on your Windows or Mac computer and install the drivers via 123.hp.com/setup . For more information, contact our team at 123.hp.com/setup . We are always available to help you.

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  76. We will help you download the correct HP printer software and drivers. Which includes Windows, MacOS, iOS and Android. You can then install your123.hp.com/setup . For installation of drives, you can take help of our website 123.hp.com/setup . A printer driver is software that your computer uses to talk to a physical printer, which may be connected to your computer or another computer on your network. You can download printer drivers and software from our website. You can visit this site to install printer setup. you can take help from our website 123.hp.com/setup .

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  77. We will help you download the correct HP printer software and drivers. Which includes Windows, MacOS, iOS and Android. You can then install your 123.hp.com/setup . For installation of drives, you can take help of our website 123.hp.com/setup . A printer driver is software that your computer uses to talk to a physical printer, which may be connected to your computer or another computer on your network. You can download printer drivers and software from our website. You can visit this site to install printer setup. you can take help from our website 123.hp.com/setup .

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  78. It provides a wider range of streaming channels and videos which users can choose according to their current moods. Download the HBO Max on your device to experience excellent sound and video quality of unlimited movies, shows and much more with hbogo.com/activate .The process to get the HBO MAX activation code is to first open your web browser and go to hbomax.com/tvsignin and your hbo max account by registered email ID.Open hbomax.com/tvsignin on your Mac/PC/mobile device. Download and install HBO MAX on your smart tv.

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  79. Download the HBO Max on your device to experience excellent sound and video quality of unlimited movies, shows and much more with hbomax.com/tvsignin .For more information visit our website

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  80. The Amazon Prime Activation Code is a six digit alphanumeric code that can be found on your TV screen when you click on “Register” on amazon.com/mytv .Amazon prime paid for online streaming services used at amazon.com/mytv Gives users access to a variety of services such as instant delivery.Search for “Amazon” to find the amazon.com/mytv app.Get more information

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  81. Go to amazon.com/mytv on your computer. You need to open amazon.com/mytv or primevideo.com/mytv on any web browser and enter the activation code Register on the Prime Web Page at amazon.com/mytv to enroll.

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  82. Go to amazon.com/mytv and create your Amazon account.For this you just have to go to Amazon and activate amazon with the help of amazon activation code. You can visit our website amazon.com/mytv for details of the entire process.Amazon Prime is a subscription service that caters to the media needs of people through the Amazon Prime platform. amazon.com/mytv Notifies visitors about topics such as Register TV, Amazon Prime TV and MyTV code.

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  83. You can use the Amazon Instant Video application on your smart TV or by installing a digital media player or video game console, which will be given by the link amazon.com/mytv in my TV description. If you need any assistance related to this, you can contact our team at amazon.com/mytv . Our entire team will be available to help you. For more information go to this link amazon.com/mytv Amazon Instant Video Application is a very fun application.

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  84. The Amazon My TV Code program requires the customer to have an Amazon account and a streaming device or TV. Amazon Prime Video is available on almost all streaming devices like Roku, Amazon Fire TV, Chromecast. All you have to do is go to amazon.com/mytv and activate amazon.com/mytv with the help of Amazon's activation code. You can visit our website amazon.com/mytv for details of the entire process.To register your device on the Amazon website you go to our website amazon.com/mytv and enter the given code.

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  85. Prime video is a subscription service that caters to the media needs of people through the primevideo.com/mytv platform. primevideo.com/mytv Notifies visitors about topics such as Register TV, Prime video TV and MyTV code. To register your device on the Prime video website you go to our website primevideo.com/mytv and enter the given code.

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  86. Amazon Prime vedio through primevideo.com/mytv is accessible to owners of streaming platforms and devices like Chromecast, Fire TV, Amazon TV, and Roku, among others.If you eagerly wanted to know what is primevideo.com/mytv then the answer is amazing. It is more than a fast delivery option. Amazon Prime is a subscription service provided by the primevideo.com/mytv with unlimited entertainment with lots of other benefits.

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  87. Get your office setup from office.com/setup . If your version of Ms Office setup came with your PC, you can download or order a latest version from office.com/setup . You can also set up an office with a 25-digit activation code. For more information, you should visit our website office.com/setup . Our team is always available for your help.

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  88. Bet365 is the world's favorite online sports betting company. It provides you with the most comprehensive in-play service. You can also watch live sport on bet365. To login in it you can go to - bet365 login . Touch ID, Face ID and Fingerprint login in the Bet365 app allows you to securely and securely login to Bet365. To login to Bet 365, go to its member area ( bet365 login ) and follow the instructions on the password page. You can visit our website (bet365 login ) to get more information about it.

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  91. netgear router login - NETGEAR has its own service of websites,netgear router login i.e., routerlogin.com and routerlogin.net. netgear router login sites will work particularly only when accessed from NETGEAR routers. These websites allow users to access their consoles by username rather than IP addresses.For more netgear router login information, visit our website

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  92. netgear router login - NETGEAR has its own service of websites,netgear router login i.e., routerlogin.com and routerlogin.net. netgear router login sites will work particularly only when accessed from NETGEAR routers. These websites allow users to access their consoles by username rather than IP addresses.For more netgear router login information, visit our website

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  93. The Amazon Prime Activation Code is a six digit alphanumeric code that can be found on your TV screen when you click on “Register” on amazon.com/mytv .Amazon prime paid for online streaming services used at amazon.com/mytv Gives users access to a variety of services such as instant delivery.Search for “Amazon” to find the amazon.com/mytv app.Get more information

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  94. If you are facing issues due to your Fix iPhone cannot get mail, Make sure your phone is connected to the internet. You might need to reset your network settings, which control how your iPhone connects to your cellular network and Wi-Fi. 2.Try logging into your email on a different device, or check with your email service provider to ensure that the system isn't temporarily down.

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  95. If you are facing issues due to yahoo account recovery Visit https://login.yahoo.com/forgot in a web browser. This website will help you recover your Yahoo account by sending a confirmation code to your backup email address or phone number. You must have access to your recovery email address or phone number to restore your account.
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